Types Of Electrical Loads on Power system and load curves, classification


An electrical load is any electrical appliance that consumes electrical energy and convert it into heat or in other form. Different electrical devices use electrical power to convert it into other form. For example resistive loads like heater convert electrical power into heat, industrial and domestic motors transform electrical energy into motion.
Depending upon the uses of electrical energy, loads on the power system are divided into a different categories for easier understanding here we are going to discuss types of electrical loads according to use and classification of loads and load duration curves.

Electrical power system loads are classified into a different category

1)Residential Loads
2)Commercial Loads
3)Industrial Loads
4)Agricultural Loads
5)Municipal Loads
6)Traction Loads
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Residential load:

residential power system load curve
residential power system load curve

Residential load uses electrical energy for doing residential works like home appliances, lighting load. Residential loads are uncertain, they vary with time of day. In the morning and evening, residential loads are at peak values. The load curve of the residential load is shown in the figure.

These loads are mainly light fans, domestic appliances like computers, fridges, heaters, micro oven, irons, dryers, air conditioning equipment. Residential loads are about 10% to 14% of the total power supplied by the power system.
The main reasons for variation in residential load are city population, per capita income, development, urbanization, living style of people, environmental condition.
Residential loads are also affected by weather conditions, like in the winter season less electrical energy is consumed for the cooling system but in summer consumption is more. Residential loads face fluctuations during hours of days.

Commercial Loads:

Commercial power system load curve
Commercial power system load curve
Commercial loads occur for a longer period compare to residential loads. These types of loads are mainly electrical energy utilize for commercial shops, schools, colleges, advertising, hoardings, malls, elevator, cinema halls, etc. Commercial load fluctuations are mainly due to the switching of air-conditioning equipment. These loads vary more depending upon the season. The load duration curve of the commercial load is shown in the above picture.

Industrial Loads:

Industrial power system load curve
Industrial power system load curve
Industrial loads have constant demand and consider as base loads. Commercial loads are little affected by seasonal variations and weather conditions. load duration curve is shown in the above image. These loads mainly include industrial appliances like motors, furnaces, cranes, industrial lighting, computers, elevators, pumps. Industrial loads utilize more electrical energy supplied by the utility. This load does not vary with seasonal change having constant demand throughout the day.

Agricultural loads :

Agricultural power system load curve
Agricultural power system load curve
 Agricultural types of loads use electrical energy for doing agriculture activities. Agricultural loads mainly include irrigation pumps, lights, water pumps.

Agricultural load varies with time. Load factor is generally taken as 15%- 22%Agricultural loads affected due to seasons, environment, weather change. These loads are mostly switched on during the morning and evening. From the above load duration curve, we can see that agricultural loads switched on during the morning and in the evening time. 

Municipal Loads :

Municipal loads consist of street lights, the electricity required for water supply pumps, and drainage systems. for water supply water is pumped to the overhead tank using an electric pump, overhead water tank pumping is carried out during the off-peak time. like during nighttime. It improves the load factor of the power system.

Traction Loads :

These types of loads mainly include trains, traction loads have wide variation. during morning hours it reaches peak value and during afternoon loads starts decreasing and again rise to peak value during evening time.

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