Types Of Electrical Loads on Power system and load curves, classification

Depending upon uses of electrical energy, loads on power system are divided into a different category for easier understanding here we are going to discuss types of electrical loads according to use and classification of loads and load duration curves.

Electrical power system loads are classified into a different category

1)Residential Loads
2)Commercial Loads
3)Industrial Loads
4)Agricultural Loads
5)Municipal Loads
6)Traction Loads

Residential load:

residential power system load curve
residential power system load curve

Residential load uses electrical energy for doing residential works like home appliances, lighting load. Residential load are uncertain, they vary with time of day. At morning and evening, residential load are at peak values. Load curve of the residential load is shown in the figure.

These loads are mainly light fan, domestic appliances like computer, fridge, heater, micro oven, irons, dryer, air conditioning equipment. Residential loads are about 10% to 14% of the total power supplied by the power system.
The main reasons for variation in residential load are city population, per capita income, development, urbanization, living style of people, environment condition.
Residential loads also affected by weather condition, like in winter season less electrical energy consumed for the cooling system but in summer consumption is more. Residential loads face fluctuations during hours of days.

Commercial Loads:

Commercial power system load curve
Commercial power system load curve
Commercial loads occur for longer period compare to residential loads. This types of loads are mainly electrical energy utilize for commercial shops, school, colleges, advertising, hoardings, malls, elevator, cinema halls etc. Commercial load fluctuations are mainly due to switching of air-conditioning equipment. These loads vary more depending upon the season. Load duration curve of the commercial load is shown in the above picture.

Industrial Loads:

Industrial power system load curve
Industrial power system load curve
Industrial loads have constant demand and consider as base loads. Commercial loads are little affected by seasonal variations and weather conditions.load duration curve is shown in the above image. This loads mainly include industrial appliances like motor, furnaces, cranes, industrial lighting, computers, elevators, pumps. Industrial loads utilize more electrical energy supplied by the utility. This load does not vary with seasonal change having constant demand throughout the day.

Agricultural loads :

Agricultural power system load curve
Agricultural power system load curve
 Agricultural types of loads use electrical energy for doing agriculture activities. Agricultural loads mainly include irrigation pumps, lights, water pumps.

Agricultural load varies with time. Load factor is generally taken as 15%- 22%Agricultural loads affected due to seasons, environment, weather change. This loads mostly switched on during morning and evening. From the above load duration curve, we can see that agricultural loads switched on during the morning and in the evening time. 

Municipal Loads :

Municipal loads consist of street lights, electricity required for water supply pumps and drainage system. for water supply water is pumped to the overhead tank using electric pump, overhead water tank pumping is carried out during off-peak time. like during night time. its improve load factor of power system.

Traction Loads :

This types of loads mainly include trains, traction loads has wide variation. during morning hours it reaches peak value and during afternoon loads starts decreasing and again rises to peak value during evening time.

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