**Definition:**The non-uniform distribution of current through the given cross-section area of the conductor, when it operated on AC current is known as the

**Skin Effect**.

When Dc current flow through the conductor it distributed uniformly throughout the cross-section area of the conductor or skin.

However, an alternating current flowing through the conductor does not distribute uniformly. It concentrates near-surface area of the conductor. this phenomenon is known as the skin effect.

Skin Effect |

**Skin effect is directly proportional**to the frequency and diameter of the conductor.

This effect in the transmission line is negligible if the frequency of the supply is less than 50Hz

The main reason for the skin effect is non-uniform flux linkages. Because of this effect, the effective cross-section area of the conductor reduced. hence the effective resistance of the conductor increases. when the conductor carrying AC current.

In the DC system, there is no rate of change of current and frequency is zero, So current distributed uniformly throughout the cross-section area of the conductor.

Hence skin effect is the absence in the DC system.

In the case of AC system, Current changes with time, so flux created in outer strands of the conductor will link with the inner strands due to low reluctances offered by and flux produced by inner strands could link with those strands only not with external strands.

So flux linkage to internal strand increases which will increase internal inductance. thus the strands near to center are surrounded by a greater magnetic flux.

The Inductance will oppose the flow of current. so current will concentrated on outer strands of conductor and very small current will be allowed through the inner strands.

## Factors affecting skin effect in the transmission line

**It depends**upon the following factors:

**Nature of material:**Increase with the increase in the permeability of the material.**Diameter of conductor**: Increases with the diameter of the wire.**Frequency**:**effect increase**as the frequency of supply increase.**Shape of conductor**: Less for stranded conductor than one solid conductor.

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