Full Wave Bridge Rectifier-Working Diagram Advantages

The full-wave bridge rectifier is a circuit that converts the alternating voltage into the direct voltage. Rectifiers made up of diodes and thyristors, to convert AC supply voltage into DC. There are many applications such as electronic circuits, HVDC transmission where DC supply is necessary. When such supply is needed the AC supply voltage is rectified into DC voltage using a rectifier.

 There are three types of the rectifier circuit
‌ 1) Half wave rectifier
‌ 2) Full-wave rectifier 
‌ 3) Full-wave bridge rectifier

In this article, we are going to discuss the working principle and construction of full-wave bridge rectifier, circuit diagram.

Full-wave bridge rectifier converts sinusoidal ac voltage into pulsating dc voltage. bridge rectifier conduct in both half cycle of applied ac voltage i.e for a positive and negative half cycle of ac voltage, unlike half-wave rectifier which conducts on only one half-cycle at a time.

Construction of Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier

Full Wave Bridge Rectifier diagram
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier  

Construction of bridge rectifier is simple as shown in the above diagram, it supplied with AC source and uses four diode D1, D2, D3, D4 which connects in an antiparallel manner to form a bridge.

Connection diagram of rectifiers diode is shown in the above figure. 

Working of the Full Wave Bridge Rectifier

The AC supply which to be rectified is applied to diagonally opposite ends of the bridge through the transformer and between the other two ends of bridge load is connected.

During Positive half cycle of ac voltage :

positive half cycle bridge rectifier
positive half cycle

At the positive half cycle of the applied AC voltage. Diode D1 and D3 are forward biased, and Diode D2, D4 reverse biased. Hence diode D1, D3 conduct in the first positive half cycle because diode conduct only in forward bias i.e when the voltage applied from anode to cathode. Due to this, For the first positive half cycle D1 and D3 conduct and delivers voltage at the output terminal.

During Negative half cycle of ac voltage :

Negative half cycle of rectifier
Negative half cycle
When the opposite polarity of ac voltage means for Negative half cycle Diode D1, D3 becomes reverse biased and D2, D4 are forward biased. So Diode D2, D4 conduct in negative half cycle producing pulsating dc output at load.

Full-wave bridge rectifier conducts on both half cycle of ac voltage and we get continues output in both conducting half cycle of applied ac voltages.

Ripple Factor :

The output of full-wave rectifier consists of DC as well as AC components called as a ripple. These ac components are undesirable and create pulsation in the rectifier output, also the effectiveness of a rectifier is depends on how much magnitude of ac components present in the output. Smaller magnitude is more effective. 

Definition of Ripple Factor:
The ratio of r.m.s value of AC components to the DC components in the rectifier output is called a ripple factor. 

Advantages of Bridge Rectifier :

  • Efficiency is high
  • Low ripple in output dc voltage 
  • The centre tap transformer is not required.

Disadvantages of Bridge Rectifier :

  • Bridge rectifier circuit is more complex than half-wave rectifier.
  • Needs four diodes
  • Power loses are more as compared to the centre tapped full-wave rectifier. because two diodes are connected in series create a double voltage drop due to internal resistance. Hence not recommended for small voltage rectification.

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